{Disappearing Iceland} 消逝的冰島

blog-Cover

很謝謝Hausinc Cafe, Mojo Retro coffee讓我相繼展覽我這個系列的作品. 此作品從冰島下去做發想,然後延伸到目前他們所面臨的環境問題. 或許大家對於去冰島都存在一個夢幻的想像,當然我不可否認的冰島的一切就像是地球尚未被污染前的樣貌. 在那裏的所有時間就宛如我脫離了現實,眼裡所見每個呼吸都充滿著對於大自然的感動. 看到每個景致在心裡發出的讚嘆聲沒有停過,只是很難想像這個無法形容的美正在一點一滴的消失. 每張作品各別代表所面臨的環境問題,利用拼貼方式下去呈現. 目前展覽正在微光寓所 Shimmer Cafe展出,有興趣的可以去看歐. 另外我有製作Zine分享每一個作品代表的意義唷!

Iceland / 1 /

R0025118

相片 2018-3-10 上午11 57 44

Iceland 冰島

冰島, 緯度64°08’N 位在北大西洋的中部,位置靠近北極圈. 在歐洲為第二大島,而雷克雅維克是全世界位於最北邊的首都.冰河覆蓋程度為土地的11%,也成為旅遊經濟的泉源之一. 冰島融合的地貌, 稱為”冰與火的國度”. 震懾的火山地形, 冰川融水沿著山崖而落成美麗的瀑布, 地熱孕育的原始溫泉, 掌握島嶼脈搏的萬年冰川. 一年四季展現不同的景致,夏季的長晝讓明亮的天空活躍著,圓滾滾的海鸚在綠意盎然的草地群聚. 冬天在深夜中極光像畫布般在黑夜中畫出變化莫測的顏色,撒上滿天的星星. 冰島的動物讓此島嶼充滿生機, 冰島馬結實的身軀與飄逸的鬃毛, 路上橫跨馬路的羊隊, 在冰河中或漂或趴的海獺與在海洋中優游自得的鯨魚. 但悄悄的地球暖化正在潛移默化的轉變著這個島嶼的景象,如此美麗的景緻是否能在百年過後還能維持現在見到的樣子,以現在氣候變遷的狀態會是一大衝擊.

Iceland, at the north latitude 64°08, locates in the middle of the North Atlantic near the Arctic Circle, and is the second-largest European island after the Great Britain. Reykjavík is the northernmost capital of the world. With 11% of its land covered with glacier, tourism has become one of the country’s greatest source of income. Well known as  “the land of fire and ice, the country has rich geological landscape. The magnificent volcanic landform, the glacial meltwater falling off the cliff forming beautiful waterfalls, , the natural hot spring from geothermal, and the ancient glacier holding its ecology have formed its uniqueness. The four distinctive seasons create different scenery. The polar day in summer injects a cheerful atmosphere to the land with chubby puffins clustering around the greenery lawn, while magical aurora and twinkling stars lightening the winter night sky. Animals overflows Iceland with vigor,  Unfortunately, the views of Icelandic horses with robust bodies and elegant mane in the wind, flocks of sheep crossing the road, sea otters swimming and laying freely around the glacier lake and whales swimming in beautiful curve in the sea might not exist hundred years later as global warming gradually influencing the land. Climate change is a great issue to the Icelandic nature.

Iceland / 2 /

R0025143

相片 2018-3-10 上午11 47 07

The uprising sea level 海平面上升

根據冰島大學與亞利桑那大學在2015年的研究數據顯示冰島因為暖化海平面在以每年上升1.4吋的速度上升.另外地理物理研究通訊的期刊中,他們在冰島設置62個全球定位系統追蹤機傳回來的數據也深刻的反應由於溫室效應與氣體排放使的溫度上升,冰河融化後減少壓在地面的重量而讓海平面反彈.

According to the data revealed by Iceland University and the University of Arizona, the sea level around Iceland is rising at the speed of 1.4 inches per year due to global warming. In addition, in the journal published by Geophysical Research Letters, the connection between rising sea level and carbon emission was positive according to the 62 GPS receivers they set around the island. When the glacier melts, it reduces the pressure on the land and causes the ocean surface to rise.

Iceland / 3 /

R0025133

相片 2018-3-10 下午12 03 28

Active volcanic activity 頻繁的火山運動

在英國的研究地球系統動力學的利兹大學教授Graeme Swindles表示冰河融減後,火山爆發的機率增加,導致此情況的原因可追朔於地殼壓力的減少而釋放了隱藏在地面下的火山能量. 在2010年Eyjafjallajökull火山爆發,造成歐洲班機大亂.從前冰與火的和平相處模式漸漸的瓦解,未知的火山爆發也在蠢蠢欲動中.

Professor Graeme Swindles, an authoritative character on Earth System Dynamics from University of Leeds stated that when the glacier melted, it increased the volcanic activity as the decreasing crustal pressure has released the volcanic energy underneath. In 2010, the outburst of Eyjafjallajökull volcano interrupted flights in Europe. The longstanding harmony between ice and fire in Iceland is collapsing, while the unknown volcanic eruptions are endangering the land.

Iceland / 4 /

R0025165

相片 2018-3-10 上午10 27 31

Disappearing glacier 消失的冰河

在冰島拍攝知名影集<冰與火之歌>內飾演Jon Snow的演員Kit Harington,在Time Magazine的採訪中提到他們回到Svínafellsjökull冰原拍攝,與四年前的冰相差甚遠,他親眼見到地球暖化對於冰原消融的影響之巨感到震撼. 根據報導,冰島每天都平均會失去一個奧運標準泳池的融冰. 然而專家表示按照此速度冰原將會在200年後消失.

Kit Harington, Jon Snow in the famous American series <Game of Thrones>, told Time Magazine in an interview that the ice has shrunk dramatically four years after their previous shooting in Svínafellsjökull. “I saw global warming with my own eyes, and it was terrifying.” According to reports, approximately an Olympic standard swimming pool of ice is melting in Iceland on a daily basis and the glaciers will be completely gone in the coming 200 years

Iceland / 5 /

R0025156

相片 2018-3-10 上午11 35 37

Rising temperature 溫度上升

從1880年開始的溫度記錄以來, 2016年是均溫第二高的其中一年. 假設全球暖化的現象沒有轉好,在這十年間你將會看到冰島的溫度上升大約攝氏4度.溫度逐年上升只是全球變暖的一部分,對於環境直接的影響將會更嚴重. 人類對地球的予取予求累積的債之多,在多的時間也還不完.

2016 had the second highest average temperature since 1880. If the global warming condition is not improved, the temperature in Iceland will rise by approximately four degrees Celsius in ten years. Rising temperature is just one part of global warming, and its impact to the environment is more direct and severe. Human being is owing a great debt to Earth that will never be repaid.

Iceland / 6 /

R0025140

相片 2018-3-10 下午12 06 09

Environmental influence 冰島生態變遷

冰島內的動植物群的生態環境也因為上升的溫度改變,從1990年開始北極鮭魚的數量開始減少,樺樹森林也擴展了9%. 根據冰島的<晨報>,本來不會出現在冰島海域的魚類竟然迅速增加10倍,例如鯖魚. 科學家預測本世紀末會有80種鳥類在也不會回到冰島,也可能會消失於世界中.

The ecological environment has been changing due to increasing temperature in Iceland. Since 1990, the population of arctic char has been decreasing, while the Icelandic birch forest has expanded by 9%. According to Morgunbladid News, fish kinds that didn’t exist in Iceland ocean area start to appear, such as mackerel. Scientists predicted that at the end of this century, 80 kinds of bird species will never get to return to Iceland, and chances are that they will extinct.

Iceland / 7 /

R0025151相片 2018-3-10 上午11 47 01

Jökulsárlón glacial lake傑古沙龍冰河

傑古沙龍冰河讓人屏息的美麗自然景象卻是冰河融解的產物.此冰河湖在60年前是不存在的.從1930年開始發展,融解的瓦特納冰原Vatnajökull逐漸形成冰河湖.然而現在是冰島內最深的湖泊.附近的沙灘上散落這形同鑽石般的冰石在太陽上絢麗的閃耀著, 因此被稱作為”鑽石冰沙灘”. 形成一顆美麗的鑽石代價可不少,只可惜這些鑽石也在逐漸消逝中.

Jökulsárlón glacial lake, with its breath-taking beauty, is a result of glacier melting. There was no Jökulsárlón sixty years ago. Starting from 1930, the glacier meltwater from Vatnajökull gradually formed the glacier lake and had made it the deepest one on the island.  Scattered with chunk of diamond-like ice shining under the sun,  the nearby beach is also well known as the Diamond Beach. Forming such  diamond-like ice takes huge efforts, and yet these precious diamonds are vanishing from the world.

15317756_10207507079496975_4547754713855886291_n

冰島現在是大家嚮往的美麗國度,我還記得我在2015年時踏上冰島那種悸動興奮的感覺,從車窗往外看千變萬化的景致都讓人著迷,走在湛藍的冰河上想像腳下的冰河水會流向何方,在冰洞內看著大自然形成的美麗的冰雕藝術品. 天空呈現漸層的色系與遠方的山相映著,每天都會因為不同的景觀讚嘆著. 我最愛的傑古沙龍冰河,直到看到有關冰島氣候變遷的文章才知道這裡的形成是因為溫室效應的因素,在了解之後發現氣候變遷正在無情的改變冰島的大自然與動物. 我做出這個小冊子的主要目的是讓大家在追逐冰島的美的同時也深刻了解現在冰島面臨的環境問題,也檢討自己過的每一天對於環境有著什麼樣的影響.

Iceland is a dreaming tourism destination for many. I still remember the excitement when I first arrived at Iceland in 2015. From the car window, I was amazed by the incredible scenery flying by. Walking on the glacier, I imagined where the glacier water would go; touring in the ice cave, I was stunned by the natural ice sculpture. The pastel blue sky lied with mountains afar created a magnificent landscape. Not until I read the article about climate change in Iceland online did I realize my favorite Jökulsárlón was the creation of global warming, which was also changing the Icelandic nature and eco-system. The purpose of making this zine is to remind the travelers to Iceland of what she is facing with and be aware of the damages all of us have done to the environment.

UNADJUSTEDNONRAW_thumb_778d

UNADJUSTEDNONRAW_thumb_7625

15232159_10207507083377072_8492295571275588760_n

UNADJUSTEDNONRAW_thumb_7897